花样滑冰运动员陈巍的物理学定律 视屏 文档 科普

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花样滑冰运动员陈巍的物理学定律

The gravity-defying physics of figure skater Nathan Chen

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这就是四周跳
This is a quadruple jump
花样滑冰中最难的动作之一
It’s one of the hardest moves in figure skating
之前没有人能
and no one’s ever
在一套动作里做5个四周跳
landed five of them in a single routine.
除了这个17岁少年陈巍
Except this guy. Nathan Chen, 17.
在(2017年)1月的全美花滑锦标赛上
In January at the US Championships,
他做到了
he did it.
一个月后好戏再度上演
And then he did it again a month later.
每一次的四周跳都是极其困难的
Even doing one quadruple jump is extremely difficult.
腾空后转体四周
a jump with four revolutions
跳跃需要极强的动量
The leap requires incredible momentum
精确控制上升和旋转
precisely divided between vertical lift and spin.
克服重力惯性的同时
Then you have to fight inertia
收缩身体加速旋转
and contract your body,making yourself spin faster.
最后落地时承受7倍体重
Finally, you land with a force equivalent to seven times your body weight.
这所有的动作都完成在一块常人甚至难以直立的冰面上
And all this on a surface where many people struggle to stand up.
一秒内要完成一个四周跳
It all takes less than a second.
而陈巍需要再做四次
And Chen still has to do it four more times
并且有余力完成整套动作
and have enough energy to finish his routine.
不仅如此
And it’s hard to tell,
他的每次跳跃都要用不同的技术
but each of his jumps uses a different technique.
陈巍的第一个是勾手四周跳
Chen’s first quad is a Lutz,
用左后外刃起跳
he takes off from the back outside edge of his left skate
右(后外刃)落冰
and lands on his right foot.
难点在旋转方向与起跳相反
What makes it so hard is that he reverses direction on takeoff.
左脚顺时针滑 逆时针转体
His left foot is skating clockwise, but then he jumps and spins the other way.
接下来后内点冰四周跳
Then there’s the flip jump
后外点冰四周跳
and the toe loop,
起跳脚完全不同
which he launches from opposite feet.
压轴大戏
And finally there’s this one,
后内结环跳
called the Salchow.
由百年前奥运花滑第一人发明
The Salchow was invented more than a hundred years ago by the first Olympian figure skater.
再看陈巍的版本
Here’s Chen’s version.
实际上这是他四周跳中最简单的之一
It’s actually one of his simplest quads
也是他这次锦标赛自由滑中最后加入的动作
and was a last-minute addition to his US Championship free skate.
然而男子花样滑冰发展迅速
But men’s figure skating is advancing fast
然而男子花样滑冰发展迅速
But men’s figure skating is advancing fast
很快就会有其他选手完成难度更高的跳跃
and it probably won’t be long before another skater accomplishes an even more impressive jump.
很快就会有其他选手完成难度更高的跳跃
and it probably won’t be long before another skater accomplishes an even more impressive jump.
已有选手尝试前外四周半跳
Some are already trying to pull off a quadruple axel,
即 前跳同时转体四周半
a forward-facing leap with four and a half rotations.
以及 五周跳
And then there’s the quintuple.
一次腾空转体五周
Five full rotations in a single jump.
尽管有人说不可能
Some say it’s impossible
但每次挑战物理学定律的人
but it wouldn’t be the first time
正是运动员们
athletes appeared to overcone the laws of physics.


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