最有争议的奥运花样滑冰跳跃 视屏 文档 科普

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最有争议的奥运花样滑冰跳跃

The most controversial Olympic figure skating jump

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这是花样滑冰中最难的一跳
This is the hardest jump in figure skating.
在空中完整地旋转四周
Four complete revolutions in the air.
我们称其为四周跳
It’s called a quadruple jump.
它正在改变花样滑冰这一项运动
And it’s changing the sport of figure skating.
如今的花样滑冰选手比以往更关注跳跃
Today’s figure skaters are more focused on jumps than ever before.
这激起了令人难以置信的对运动能力的展示
That’s led to incredible displays of athleticism,
但并不是每个人都因此感到高兴
but not everyone is happy about it.
四周跳对于很多观众来说 并没有什么作用
For lots of fans, quadruple jumps have done little
只是让花样滑冰变得更加丑陋和危险
but make figure skating uglier and more dangerous.
他们或许是对的
And they may be right.
四周跳是极其困难的
A quadruple jump is extremely difficult.
这一跳跃需要惊人的动力
The leap requires incredible momentum,
精确地分为垂直升力和自旋力
precisely divided between vertical lift and spin.
然后你必须克服惯性来收缩你的身体
Then you have to fight inertia to contract your body,
让自己旋转更迅速 最后
making yourself spin faster. Finally,
你着陆时的力相当于你体重的7倍
you land with a force equivalent to seven times your body weight.
所有的这些都发生在许多人挣扎着站起来的冰面上
And all of this on a surface where many people struggle to stand up.
这一切都发生在不到一秒钟里
It all takes less than a second.
美国花样滑冰选手Nathan Chen在他的长期项目中做了五次这样的跳跃 现在
American figure skater Nathan Chen does five of these jumps in his long program. Now,
并非所有的四周跳都是一样的 首先
all quads aren’t created equal. First,
就是Lutz
there’s the Lutz,
你从左滑后的外刃起跳
where you take off from the back outside edge
用右脚着地
of your left skate and land on your right foot.
你在起跳时需要改变方向 这让一切变得如此困难
What makes it so hard is that you reverse direction on takeoff.
你的左脚是顺时针滑的
Your left foot is skating clockwise,
但是等下你会跳起来转到另一个方向
but then you jump and spin the other way.
然后是后内点冰跳 从左脚开始
Then there’s the flip jump, which launches from the left foot,
还有后外点冰跳 从右脚开始
and the toe loop, which launches from the right.
最后是这个 叫做萨尔科
And finally there’s this one, called the Salchow.
它是一百多年前发明的
It was invented more than a hundred years ago
由第一个奥运会花样滑冰冠军
by the first Olympic figure skating champion.
这些跳跃动作正在推动花样滑冰的极限
These jumps are pushing the limits of figure skating.
但它们也从根本上改变了这项运动
But they’re also fundamentally changing the sport.
在大部分的四周跳或者变化上
Most quads—or passes where a skater
一个滑冰者做一次四周跳接着另一个跳跃
does a quad and then another jump—
来获得负面的执行分 这意味着他们是草率的
get negative grades of execution. Meaning, they’re sloppy.
其中一半完全是灾难
Half of those are total disasters.
就连陈在三分之一的四跳中也失误了
And even Chen makes mistakes on about one-third of his quad passes.
这意味着几乎所有人都会跌倒
That means nearly everyone falls,
随着运动员冒更多的风险 许多人受了伤
and as athletes take more risks, many get injured.
但这些伤病并没有阻止其他选手
But those injuries haven ’ t stopped other skaters
努力在他们的职业路上走得更远
from trying to push their routines even further.
一些滑冰运动员甚至尝试去做出四倍的前外一周半跳
Some skaters are even trying to pull off a quadruple axel,
4个半旋转的向前跳跃
a forward-facing leap with four and a half rotations.
这将再次改变这项运动
That would change the sport all over again.
但它也提出了一个问题
But it also raises a question:
如果花样滑冰变成了一种任务
If figure skating has turned into a quest
为了越来越大的跳跃
for bigger and bigger jumps,
它还会是艺术性的吗?
can it still be about artistry?


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